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Comparison of the efficacy of intraperitoneal instillation of butorphanol versus nalbuphine as adjuvants to ropivacaine for postoperative pain relief in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia: A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study


 Department of Anaesthesia, SGRDIMSR, Amritsar, Punjab, India

Correspondence Address:
Lakshmi Mahajan,
Department of Anaesthesia, SGRDIMSR, Amritsar, Punjab
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/aer.aer_74_22

Background and Aims: Postoperative pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy is very common complication hindering the early return of routine activity. Since agonist opioids are not easily available, the most common drug used for intraoperative analgesia is intravenous butorphanol in our institute. The purpose of our study is to compare the analgesic effect of intraperitoneal butorphanol and nalbuphine as additives with ropivacaine in laparoscopic cholecystectomy for postoperative pain. Setting and Design: Randomized, double-blind prospective study undertaken after approval from the Institutional Ethics Committee. Materials and Methods: In this study, 90 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly divided into three groups: group A received intraperitoneal ropivacaine 0.2% of 20 mL with butorphanol 2 mg; Group B received intraperitoneal ropivacaine 0.2% 20 mL with nalbuphine 10 mg; and Group C received intraperitoneal ropivacaine 0.2% 20 mL with 0.9% normal saline. The primary outcome was to compare the analgesic efficacy of butorphanol with nalbuphine and the duration of postoperative pain relief. The secondary outcomes included the comparison of hemodynamic parameters, frequency of rescue analgesia, and complications among the three groups. Statistical Analysis: The data analysis was carried out with ANOVA and Chi-square test using the SPSS software version 26.0. Results: The mean of the Numeric Rating Scale pain score was insignificant in Group A versus B at all-time intervals indicating similar efficacy of butorphanol and nalbuphine in terms of pain relief postoperatively. However, the time to first rescue analgesia was significantly higher in Group A (5.70 ± 3.57 h), followed by Group B (3.95 ± 2.06 h) and Group C (2.50 ± 1.24 h). Conclusion: Butorphanol is better analgesic than nalbuphine as postoperative pain-free period was relatively more with lesser complications.


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    -  Mahajan L
    -  Singh AP
    -  Kaur SS
    -  Kumari A
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