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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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January-March 2021
Volume 15 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-156

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EDITORIAL  

Tribute to the departed Tunisian and Arab legend of anesthesia: Professor mohamed allouche Dhahri p. 1
Mohamed Salah Ben Ammar, Iheb Labbene
DOI:10.4103/aer.aer_93_21  
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REVIEW ARTICLE Top

Fentanyl-induced respiratory depression: A narrative review on the possible single-nucleotide polymorphism Highly accessed article p. 4
Prabha Udayakumar, Srisruthi Udayakumar
DOI:10.4103/aer.aer_94_21  
Opioid-related respiratory depression is a serious clinical problem as it can cause multiple deaths and anoxic brain injury. Genetic variations influence the safety and clinical efficacy of fentanyl. Pharmacogenetic studies help in identifying single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with fentanyl causing respiratory depression and aid clinician in personalized pain medicine. This narrative review gives an insight of the common SNPs associated with fentanyl.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Prospective comparative evaluation of noninvasive and invasive mechanical ventilation in patients of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with acute respiratory failure Type II Highly accessed article p. 8
Amartej Singh Sohal, Asha Anand, Prabhjot Kaur, Harpreet Kaur, Joginder Pal Attri
DOI:10.4103/aer.aer_53_21  
Introduction: Acute respiratory failure is a potential complication of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that severely affects the health of the patient and may require mechanical ventilation. We compared noninvasive and invasive mechanical ventilation in COPD patients with acute respiratory failure type II to validate clinical outcome based on biochemical analysis of arterial blood gases (ABGs) and pulmonary parameters in terms of duration of mechanical ventilation, period spent in intensive care unit (ICU) and mortality. Materials and Methods: After approval of institutional ethical committee 100 patients were selected for randomized prospective controlled trial and divided into two groups of 50 each according to mode of mechanical ventilation. Group-I patients managed with noninvasive ventilation (NIV) Group-ll managed with invasive ventilation. Results: Demographic data between two groups were comparable. ABG parameters were better at 2 h and 6 h interval in NIV as compared to invasive ventilation (P < 0.05). The duration of ventilation and total time spent in ICU was 106±10 hours and 168±8 hours respectively in NIV group and 218 ± 12 and 280 ± 20 in invasive group. On intergroup comparison these were significantly less in noninvasive group (P < 0.05). Hospital acquired pneumonia occurred in 10% of patients in invasive group whereas no incidence of pneumonia found in noninvasive group. Mortality rate was 12% in invasive groups and 2% in noninvasive groups. Conclusion: NIV leads to significant improvement in ABG and pulmonary parameters and it reduces duration of ventilation and total period of hospital stay so it can be used as an alternative to invasive ventilation as first-line treatment in COPD.
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Radiofrequency treatment of idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (Conventional vs. Pulsed): A prospective randomized control study p. 14
Anurag Agarwal, Shivani Rastogi, Manjari Bansal, Suraj Kumar, Deepak Malviya, Anup K Thacker
DOI:10.4103/aer.aer_56_21  
Background: Idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (TGN) is a chronic pain disorder causing unilateral, severe brief stabbing recurrent pain in the distribution of one or more branches of the trigeminal nerve. Conventional radiofrequency (CRF) and pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) are two types of minimally invasive treatment. CRF selectively ablates the part of ganglion to provide the relief, but it has been found to be associated with some side effects such as dysesthesia or sensory loss in 6%–28% and loss of corneal reflex in 3%–8% of patients. PRF is a comparatively newer modality which is a nondestructive and neuromodulatory method of delivering radiofrequency energy to the gasserian ganglion to produce a therapeutic effect. Aims: We aimed to compare the efficacy of CRF with long-duration, fixed voltage PRF in the treatment of idiopathic TGN. Setting: This study was conducted in a tertiary care center research institute. Study Design: This was a prospective randomized trial. Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven adult patients of TGN were included in the study and randomly allocated into two groups (CRF and PRF). All procedures were performed operation suite with C-arm fluoroscopic guidance. Both, pre- and postprocedure, the patients were assessed for pain on the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI) Pain Intensity Scale at 1 week and thereafter at 1, 2, 3, and 6 months. Patients with a BNI score ≥4 after 1 month were considered a failure and offered other modes of treatment. A reduction in VAS score ≥50% and a BNI score <4 were considered as effective. Statistical Analysis: Discreet variables were recorded as proportions, ordinal variables and continuous variables with non-Gaussian distribution as medians with interquartile range, and continuous variables with Gaussian distribution as mean ± standard deviation. Association between ordinal variables was tested by Fisher's exact test/Chi-square test whenever appropriate. Equality of means/median was tested by using paired/unpaired t-test or nonparametric tests depending upon the distribution of data. P ≤ 0.5 was considered statistically significant. Data analysis was performed using STATA version 13.04 windows. Results: Efficacy in terms of decrease in VAS ≥50% at 1 month was 33.33% and 83.33% in the PRF and CRF groups, respectively, which was statistically significant(P = 0.036). Effective reduction in BNI scores at the 7th day, 1 month, and 2 months postprocedure was evaluated and found in 41.67% and 83.33% of patients in the PRF and CRF groups, respectively, which was statistically insignificant (P = 0.089). There was a statistically significant reduction in BNI scores in PRF and CRF group patients at 3 and 6 months (at 3 months, 33.33% and 83.33%, P = 0.036 and at 6 months, 25% and 83.33%, P = 0.012). In the CRF group, mild hypoesthesia was evident in three patients which improved by the end of 1 month while no side effects were seen in the PRF group. Conclusion: CRF is a more effective procedure to decrease pain in comparison to long-duration, fixed voltage PRF for the treatment of idiopathic TGN. Although the side effects are more with CRF, they are mild and self-limiting. Limitation: The limitations of this study were as follows: small sample size and short duration.
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Comparison of ultrasound-guided direct versus ultrasound-guided dart technique of radial artery cannulation: A randomized control study p. 20
MS Varnitha, Ajay Kumar, Priyanka Gupta, Vikas Yadav, Ankit Agarwal, Anshuman Darbari
DOI:10.4103/aer.aer_61_21  
Background: Three different types of cannulation method for radial artery are Direct technique, Seldinger technique, and modified Seldinger technique (Dart). Their comparative efficacy has been studied using palpatory method but not with ultrasound guidance. Aims: We compared the efficacy of ultrasound-guided Direct and ultrasound-guided Dart technique of arterial cannulation. Settings and Design: One hundred and sixty patients posted for elective surgeries were included in prospective randomized control, single-blind study in a tertiary care center. Materials and Methods: The study comprised of two groups: Direct method (n = 80) and Dart method (n = 80), which were compared for the rate of successful cannulation within 5 min. The secondary objectives were time for successful cannulation, number of attempts, and rate of complications (hematoma, posterior wall puncture, and needle reinsertion) between two groups. Statistical Analysis: The group comparison for continuously distributed data was compared using the independent sample t-test. The Chi-square test was used for the group comparison of categorical data. Binary logistic regression was conducted to ascertain significant predictors for successful cannulation in 5 min. Results: Cannulation success rate was similar in both Direct (57.5%) and Dart (55%) groups. There was no significant difference in time for successful cannulation, number of attempts, number of needle redirection, and posterior wall puncture. However, the incidence of hematoma (Direct 22.5% [18]; Dart 8% [10]) was significant. There was better success rate of cannulation (n = 90) in patients with normal pulse and bigger radial artery lumen. Conclusion: There was no significant difference between Dart and Direct technique with the use of ultrasound guidance.
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Evaluation of addition of sodium bicarbonate to dexamethasone and ropivacaine in supraclavicular brachial plexus block for upper limb orthopedic procedures p. 26
Loveleen Kour, Gourav Sharma, Saima Hassan Tantray
DOI:10.4103/aer.aer_45_21  
Background: Peripheral nerve blocks have taken over as the principle technique for upper limb surgeries. A number of adjuvants have been tried individually, but very few studies have investigated the cumulative effect of two or more adjuvants given together along with local anesthetic. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of addition of sodium bicarbonate to dexamethasone and ropivacaine in supraclavicular brachial plexus block. Settings and Design: This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind study that comprised 90 American Society of Anaesthesiologist (ASA) 1 and 2 patients posted upper limb orthopedic procedures. Materials and Methods: Ninety ASA 1 and 2 patients were selected and divided into three groups of 30 each: Group R received 30 mL of 0.75% ropivacaine plus 4 mL normal saline; Group RD 30 mL of 0.75% ropivacaine, 2 mL normal saline and 2 mL of dexamethasone were given; Group RB 30 mL of 0.75% ropivacaine plus 2 mL of dexamethasone and 2 mL of sodium bicarbonate. Onset and duration of sensory and motor block and postoperative pain scores were studied in each group. Statistical Analysis: Student's independent t-test was employed for comparing the continuous variables and Chi-square test for the categorical variables. Kruskal–Wallis test was used for postoperative pain score data. Results: Addition of sodium bicarbonate to dexamethasone and ropivacaine quickens onset and prolongs duration of sensory and motor block. Conclusion: Sodium bicarbonate produces a synergistic and potentiating effect with dexamethasone as adjuvant in supraclavicular brachial plexus block.
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Comparison between local infiltration analgesia and ultrasound guided single shot adductor canal block post total knee replacement surgery- A randomized controlled trial p. 32
Priti Narayan, Vijay A Sahitya, Mahesh M Chandrashekaraiah, Ahsan J Butt, Keith A Johnston, Sharon Skowronski
DOI:10.4103/aer.aer_58_21  
Context: Good quality analgesia posttotal knee arthroplasty (TKA) contributes majorly to early mobilization and shorter hospital stay. Aim: To compare adductor canal block (ACB) versus local infiltration analgesia (LIA) for postoperative pain relief in patients undergoing TKA. Settings and Design: This prospective, single-blind, randomized controlled trial was undertaken at a tertiary care university hospital. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients of American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status Classes I, II, and III, who received spinal anesthesia for TKA were randomly allocated to two groups. Group A patients had LIA of the knee joint using a mixture of 50 mL of 0.25% bupivacaine, 10 mg morphine (1 mL) and 99 mL of normal saline. Group B patients received ACB using 25 mL of 0.5% bupivacaine under ultrasound guidance. All patients received multimodal analgesia comprising of paracetamol, diclofenac, and patient controlled analgesia with morphine in the first 24 h' postoperative period. The primary outcome measures were first 24 h' morphine consumption and pain scores at 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 h. The secondary outcome measures were nausea/vomiting, sedation, and patient satisfaction scores. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was performed using the Student's t-test, Mann–Whitney test, and Chi-square test. Results: The 24 h morphine consumption was 11.97 ± 7.97 and 10.83 ± 6.41 mg in the LIA group and ACB group, respectively (P = 0.54). No significant differences were noted either in the pain scores at rest and flexion or secondary outcome measures between both groups in the first 24 h. Conclusion: Single-shot ACB is equally effective as LIA as postoperative analgesia for TKA.
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Examination of spinal canal anatomy with MRI measurements in lomber disc herniation patients: An anesthesiologist viewpoint p. 38
Ayhan Kaydu, İbrahim Andan, Muhammed Akif Deniz, Hüseyin Bilge, Ömer Başol
DOI:10.4103/aer.aer_64_21  
Background and Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of patients with lumbar disc herniation (LDH) to identify the challenges associated with neuraxial anesthesia. Materials and Methods: The MRI images in the supine position of 203 patients admitted to hospital with complaints of lower back pain were studied. Medial sagittal slices of the lumbar spine were imaged from L1 to S1. LDH is classified as either bulging, extrusion, or protrusion. Results: For this study, 83 males and 120 females with a mean age of 43.18 ± 14.68 years were recruited. The highest herniation level was observed at L4–L5 in 145 (71.4%) patients: 76 instances of disc bulging (37.4%), 56 instances of extrusion (27.6%), and 13 instances of protrusion (6.4%). The longest distance between the skin and spinal cord was 60.06 ± 1.61 mm at L5–S1; the longest distance at width of the epidural space was 6.09 ± 1.95 mm at L3–L4. According to the disc herniation groups, no significant differences were found between the skin-to-dura distance, width of the epidural space, and depth of skin level to spinous process (P > 0.05). Moreover, the anterior dura to cord distances was significantly different from normal patients (P < 0.05). Indeed, there was a statistically weak and negative correlation between both the length and age of the lumbar spinal canal (P < 0.05, r = −0.295). Conclusions: Lumbar disc pathologies can cause anatomical derangements in the spinal canal, which may cause neurologic deficits by neuraxial blockade.
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Comparison of perineural and intravenous dexamethasone as an adjuvant to levobupivacaine in ultrasound-guided infraclavicular brachial plexus block: A prospective randomized trial p. 45
G Veena, Anshu Pangotra, Shailesh Kumar, Jay Prakash, Natesh S Rao, Shio Priye
DOI:10.4103/aer.aer_69_21  
Background: The effect of perineural versus intravenous (i.v.) dexamethasone (4 mg) when added to levobupivacaine as an adjuvant has not been well studied. Aims: This study was conducted to compare the analgesic efficacy of perineural and i.v. dexamethasone as an adjuvant to levobupivacaine in infraclavicular brachial plexus (ICBP) block. Settings and Design: This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind study. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 68 patients with the ultrasound-guided ICBP block, randomly allocated into two groups (34 each). Four patients had failed block (2 in each group) that was excluded from the study. Group A received 25 mL of levobupivacaine 0.5% and 1 mL of normal saline for the block and i.v. dexamethasone 4 mg. Group B received 25 mL of levobupivacaine 0.5% with 4 mg of perineural dexamethasone for the block. Postoperative vitals and different block characteristics were assessed. Statistical Analysis Used: Student's independent sample t-test and Chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. Results: The duration of motor block and analgesia in Group A was 1245.94 ± 153.22 min and 1310.16 ± 151.68 min, respectively. However, in Group B, the duration of motor block and analgesia was 1768.13 ± 309.86 min and 1743.59 ± 231.39 min, respectively, which was more when compared to Group A (P < 0.001). The Visual Analog Scale score of ≥3 in Group A was 37% and in Group B was 9% (P = 0.008). Four cases had delayed regression of motor block in the perineural group. Conclusions: Perineural dexamethasone significantly prolonged the duration of motor block promoted by levobupivacaine in infraclavicular brachial plexus block, reduced pain intensity and rescue analgesia needs in the postoperative period when compared with the intravenous dexamethasone.
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Comparison of airway ultrasound indices and clinical assessment for the prediction of difficult laryngoscopy in elective surgical patients: A prospective observational study p. 51
M Pranav Rohit Kasinath, Amit Rastogi, Vansh Priya, Tapas Kumar Singh, Prabhaker Mishra, KC Pant
DOI:10.4103/aer.aer_75_21  
Background: Ultrasound is evolving as a probable tool in airway assessment. The upper airway is a superficial structure and has sonographically identifiable structures which makes it ideal for evaluation with the ultrasound. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of skin to hyoid and skin to thyrohyoid membrane distance in prediction of difficult laryngoscopy. Settings and Design: This is a prospective observational study included 150 patients aged 18–60 years of American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status I and II scheduled to undergo surgery under general anesthesia requiring laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation. Materials and Methods: The modified Mallampati score, mouth opening, mentohyoid distance, thyromental distance were noted. Skin to hyoid bone distance and skin to thyrohyoid membrane distance were measured by ultrasound. Patients were clubbed retrospectively into easy and difficult laryngoscopy groups on the basis of Cormack Lehane grading, and the characteristics of both groups were compared. Statistical Analysis: Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, Version 23 was used for statistical analysis. Independent samples t-test was used to compare the means between difficult and easy laryngoscopy patients. Diagnostic accuracy of the significant (P < 0.05) variables between difficult and easy laryngoscopy patients was calculated using receiver operating characteristics curve in terms of their area under curve. Appropriate cutoff values (with corresponding sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy) were also identified. Results: Out of 150 patients, 13 (8.7%) were identified as difficult laryngoscopy whereas 137 patients (91.3%) were identified as easy laryngoscopy. The demographics of both groups were comparable. Mentohyoid distance, skin to hyoid bone distance, and skin to thyrohyoid distance were statistically different between easy and difficult laryngoscopy patients, with lower mentohyoid distance and higher skin to hyoid bone distance and skin to thyrohyoid distance in difficult laryngoscopy patients. Diagnostic accuracy of the mentohyoid distance (70.3%) was slightly superior to skin to hyoid bone distance (67.1%) and skin to thyrohyoid distance (68.1%). Conclusion: Ultrasound measurements of skin to hyoid bone and skin to thyrohyoid membrane distance fail to eclipse clinical parameters in accurately predicting a difficult laryngoscopy.
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A comparative study in airway novices using king vision videolaryngoscope and conventional macintosh direct laryngoscope for endotracheal intubation p. 57
Vinayak Seenappa Pujari, Balaji Thiyagarajan, Alagu Annamalai, Yatish Bevinaguddaiah, AC Manjunath, Leena Harshad Parate
DOI:10.4103/aer.aer_72_21  
Background and Objectives: Tracheal intubation using laryngoscopy is a fundamental skill, for an anesthesiologist. However, teaching this skill is difficult since Macintosh direct laryngoscope (DL) allows only one individual to view the larynx during the procedure. Hence, this study aimed to determine whether King Vision® videolaryngoscope (KVL) provides any advantage over direct laryngoscopy in teaching this skill to airway novices. Materials and Methods: In this prospective randomized crossover study, Ethical Committee clearance was obtained from the institutional review board (MSRMC/EC/2017) and the study was registered with Clinical Trial Registry. After informed consent, 53 medical students were allotted to perform laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation on a manikin by using either KVL or Macintosh DL. The participants first performed laryngoscopy with either KVL or Macintosh DL following a brief instruction and then crossed over to the second arm of the study to perform laryngoscopy using the other scope. The primary outcome measure was the time for successful endotracheal intubation. The secondary outcome measures were incidence of esophageal intubation (EI), excess application of pressure on maxillary teeth excess maxillary pressure, and success rate. Results: Mean time for endotracheal intubation was significantly faster using KVL than in DL (44.64 vs. 87.72 s; P < 0.001). No significant difference was found in the incidence of esophageal intubation 15.1% in KVL group versus 24.5% in DL group (P = 0.223). In the KVL group, 81.1% did not apply pressure on maxillary teeth versus 26.4% in the DL group (P < 0.001). The success rate of intubation was 100% in the KVL group versus 86.8% in the DL group (P = 0.006). Conclusion: The KVL is a more effective tool to teach endotracheal intubation in comparison to Macintosh laryngoscope in airway novice medical students. Clinical trial registry India registration number: CTRI/2017/11/010491.
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Role of dexamethasone on oxygen requirement, mortality, and survival incidence among COVID-19 patients: Quasi-experimental study p. 62
Lakshmi Mahajan, Arvinder Pal Singh, Akshita Singla, Gifty Singh
DOI:10.4103/aer.aer_70_21  
Background: Patients diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are often prone to developing systemic inflammation which eventually causes damage to the lungs and other important organs. Randomized open-label control trials carried out in the different parts of the world have highlighted the importance of corticosteroids for treating such patients. Materials and Methods: The current quasi-experimental study was based on COVID-19-infected patients with oxygen saturation <92% and evidence of pneumonia confirmed through radiological examination. Study participants in Group A received standard care, while those in Group B received standard care along with 6 mg intravenous dexamethasone for 10 days (or until discharge, if earlier). The clinical status of the study participants was assessed on day 7 and day 14 on a 6-point ordinal scale. Results: It was observed from the study that there was reduction in the intensive care unit (ICU) stay and mortality among the study participants requiring high-flow oxygen or noninvasive ventilation in Group B as compared to Group A. After 7 days of treatment, 50% of the study participants in Group B got discharged as compared to 15% of the study participants in Group A. The number of study participants requiring mechanical ventilation remained 1 in Group B as compared to 5 in Group A. After the completion of treatment schedule, 91% study participants were discharged. There was 1 case of mortality reported in Group B as compared to 6 cases of mortality in Group A. Conclusions: The current study highlighted that fewer number of COVID-19-positive study participants in Group B required high-flow oxygen supplementation and noninvasive positive pressure ventilation as compared to those included in Group A. The corticosteroid treatment also reduced the number of ICU transfer and mortality.
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Effect of gelfoam soaked epidural dexmedetomidine or bupivacaine for postoperative analgesia in lumbar laminectomy: A prospective randomized clinical study p. 67
Ajay Prakash, Manoj Kumar Giri, Suraj Kumar, Chandra Kant Pandey, Deepak Malviya, Smarika Mishra
DOI:10.4103/aer.aer_66_21  
Background and Aims: Postoperative pain is spine surgery can last for an average of two to three days. Epidural catheter management are difficult in spine surgery for postoperative pain. Still, there have been not much studies on epidural administered gelfoam soaked dexmedetomidine or bupivacaine, to enhance postoperative analgesia. Methods: Ninety six adult patients were randomized into three groups. Gelfoam soaked in 0.1 mg dexmedetomidine (0.02 mg. mL-1) in group D, 0.25% isobaric bupivacaine (5 mL) in group B and gelfoam soaked in 0.9% normal saline (5 mL) in group C. The Primary outcome was to compare the total amount of rescue analgesic consumption till 48 hours. The Secondary outcome was to compare time to first dose of rescue analgesia (duration of analgesia), the visual analogue scale and side effects up to 48 hours. Chi-square test, independent t test and analysis of variance test were used, and P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Ninety patients completed the study. Total dose of rescue analgesic consumed in 48 hours was significantly higher in control group (paracetamol 4.17 ± 0.75 gm with tramadol 205 ± 37.94 mg). Bupivacaine soaked gelfoam group (paracetamol 3.04±0.71 gm with tramadol 151.85 ± 35.31 mg) had more rescue analgesic consumption than dexmedetomidine soaked gelfoam group (paracetamol 1.72 ± 0.57 gm with tramadol 86.11 ± 28.73 mg). Time for first rescue analgesic requirement with dexmedetomidine soaked gelfoam group was significantly longer (14.67 ± 7.76 hours) than in bupivacaine soaked gelfoam group (11.33 ± 6.08 hours) and control group (6.40 ± 2.77 hours). Postoperative mean VAS scores were lower in group D and group B compared with group C along with no significant adverse effects. Conclusion: Patients undergoing lumbar laminectomy with gelfoam soaked epidural dexmedetomidine or bupivacaine decreases rescue analgesic consumption, prolongs the duration of analgesia and decreases mean VAS score postoperatively.
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A comparative study between truview PCD video laryngoscope and macintosh laryngoscope with respect to intubation quality and hemodynamic changes p. 73
Rajiba Lochan Samal, Sumita Swain, Soumya Samal
DOI:10.4103/aer.aer_62_21  
Background and Aims: Video laryngoscopes resemble traditional laryngoscopes, but they have a video chip embedded in the tip of laryngoscope blade. This enables the operator to “look around the corners” which is not possible with conventional direct laryngoscopes. The present study was undertaken to compare Truview video laryngoscope and Macintosh laryngoscope for glottis visualization, ease of tracheal intubation, and associated hemodynamic response. Setting: The study was conducted in operation theater in a medical college. Study Design: It was a randomized prospective observational study. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients of American Society of Anesthesiologists Grade 1 and 2 of either sex aged 18–60 years who were scheduled to undergo elective surgery requiring general anesthesia with orotracheal intubation were selected. In patients of Group T (n = 30), intubation was done using Truview video laryngoscope, while in Group M (n = 30), intubation was done using Macintosh laryngoscope. Various airway and hemodynamic parameters were assessed and compared. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square test, paired and unpaired Student's t-test, and ANOVA test. P < 0.05 is considered statistically significant. Results: Distribution of modified Mallampati Class (MMPC), ease of laryngoscopic blade insertion, and size of cuffed endotracheal tube used were statistically comparable in both the groups. The time to intubation was more in Group T (37.16 ± 8.23 s) as compared to Group M (29.80 ± 6.75 s). There was a statistically significant better modified Cormack and Lehane (CL) grading view obtained in Group T as compared to Group M (P = 0.025). CL Grades 2 and 3 were not seen in any of either of the group. The mean intubation difficulty score (IDS) was significantly lower in Group T (0.3 ± 0.60) as compared to Group M (0.73 ± 0.86). In both the Groups T and M, the mean heart rate, systolic blood pressure (BP), and diastolic BP were significantly increased from baseline for up to 3 min after laryngoscopy, but they were comparable between the two groups all the time. Conclusion: Truview propaganda cum distribution laryngoscope provides a better glottis view than the Macintosh laryngoscope. Although it requires a longer time to intubate using Truview, the overall IDS score was lower as compared to Macintosh laryngoscope. Hemodynamic changes remained similar in both the groups.
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Comparison of oral versus intramuscular clonidine for prolongation of bupivacaine spinal anesthesia in patients undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy p. 81
Smarika Mishra, Pratiksha Gogia, Prachi Singh, Manoj Tripathi, Sandeep Yadav, Deepak Malviya
DOI:10.4103/aer.aer_84_21  
Background: Clonidine is a commonly used agent for premedication through oral, intravenous, and intramuscular route. Very few studies mentioned intramuscular clonidine as premedication. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the present study is to compare oral and intramuscular clonidine as predication agent in bupivacaine spinal anesthesia patients. Materials and Methods: In our study, recruited patients were randomly allocated in three groups of 32 each. All patients received intrathecal bupivacaine heavy 3 mL with oral 150 μg clonidine in Group 1, intramuscular 150 μg clonidine in Group 2, and oral placebo tablet in Group 3 1 h before taking the patient in operation theater. We have assessed for duration of sensory block, duration of motor block, duration of analgesia, sedation score, and hemodynamic changes in groups. Statistical Analysis: The parametric data were expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Primary analysis of parametric data between the two groups was done by student's t-test, and among three groups, analysis of variance was used. Results: Duration of motor block was found significantly high in Group 2 than Group 1 (208.06 ± 9.48 vs. 200.25 ± 9.42; P < 0.05). Duration of sensory block was also found significantly high in Group 2 than Group 1 (219.69 ± 9.44 vs. 210.25 ± 9.68; P < 0.05). Time to give first dose of analgesia was also found greater in Group 2 than Group 1 (234.66 ± 11.76 vs. 217.75 ± 10.09; P < 0.05). Sedation score and other side effects were found statistically nonsignificant between Group 1 and 2. Conclusion: We can conclude that preoperative intramuscular clonidine is a better alternate of oral clonidine for bupivacaine spinal anesthesia in terms of long duration of motor and sensory block and less requirement of analgesic with clinically insignificant side effects.
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US residents' perspectives on the introduction, conduct, and value of american board of anesthesiology's objective structured clinical examination-results of the 1st nationwide questionnaire survey Highly accessed article p. 87
Basavana Goudra, Arjun Guthal
DOI:10.4103/aer.aer_76_21  
Introduction: Passing the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) is currently a requirement for the vast majority (not all) of candidates to gain American Board of Anesthesiology (ABA) initial certification. Many publications from the ABA have attempted to justify its introduction, conduct and value. However, the ABA has never attempted to understand the views of the residents. Methods: A total of 4237 residents at various training levels from 132 programs were surveyed by asking to fill a Google questionnaire prospectively between March 8th, 2021 and April 10th, 2021. Every potential participant was sent an original email followed by 2 reminders. Results: The overall response rate was 17.26% (710 responses to 4112 invitations). On a 5-point Likert scale with 1 as “very inaccurate” and 5 as “very accurate,” the mean accuracy of objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) in assessing communication skills and professionalism was 2.3 and 2.1 respectively. In terms of the usefulness of OSCE training for improving physicians' clinical practice, avoiding lawsuits, teaching effective communication with patients and teaching effective communication with other providers, the means on a 5-point Likert scale with 1 as “Not at all useful” and 5 as “Very useful” were 1.86, 1.69, 1.79, and 1.82 respectively. Residents unanimously thought that factors such as culture, race/ethnicity, religion and language adversely influence the assessment of communication skills. On a 5-point Likert scale with 1 as “not at all affected” and 5 as “very affected,” the corresponding scores were 3.45, 3.19, 3.89, and 3.18 respectively. Interestingly, nationality and political affiliation were also thought to influence this assessment, however, to a lesser extent. In addition, residents believed it is inappropriate to test non-cardiac anesthesiologists for TEE skills (2.39), but felt it was appropriate to test non-regional anesthesiologists in Ultrasound skills (3.29). Lastly, nearly 80% of the residents think that money was the primary motivating factor behind ABA's introduction of the OSCE. Over 96% residents think that OSCE should be stalled, either permanently scrapped (60.8%) or paused (35.8%). Conclusions: Anesthesiology residents in the United States overwhelmingly indicated that the OSCE does not serve any useful purpose and should be immediately halted.
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Comparative study of the analgesic efficacy of intrathecal fentanyl with ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block after lower segment cesarean section p. 101
Nagalakshmi S Nayak, K Kalpana, Radhika Dhanpal, Lal Chand Tudu, Jay Prakash
DOI:10.4103/aer.aer_80_21  
Background: This study was conducted to compare the analgesic efficacy of intrathecal fentanyl with ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block after lower segment cesarean section. The objectives of the study were to compare the effects of subarachnoid fentanyl versus TAP block with respect to duration of postoperative analgesia, time for first analgesic request, total analgesic consumption in 24 h, time to first breastfeed and Apgar score at 1 and 5 min. Materials and Methods: Sixty-two patients undergoing elective or emergency cesarean delivery were recruited for the study in a prospective, randomized, single-blind manner. The patients were randomly allocated to either intrathecal fentanyl group (Group F) or TAP block group (Group T) after determining the eligibility criteria. Group F patients received subarachnoid block with 10 mg of 0.5% bupivacaine heavy with 25 mcg of fentanyl. Group T patients received subarachnoid block with 10 mg of 0.5% bupivacaine heavy prior to surgery and at the end of surgery, they received TAP block with 0.25% bupivacaine 20 mL on each side. Results: Group T had significantly longer time for the first analgesic request (7.65 ± 1.23 h) than group F (4.10 ± 0.32 h). The total analgesic consumption in 24 h was significantly less in Group T (1.0 ± 0) than Group F (2.13 ± 0.34). The Visual Analogue Scale scores at rest and on movement were significantly less in Group T than Group F at all-time points. The Apgar score at 1 and 5 min and time to first breast feed were comparable between the two groups. The incidence of side effects was less in Group T. Conclusion: This study indicated that ultrasound-guided TAP block has a better analgesic as well as safety profile compared to intrathecal fentanyl for cesarean delivery.
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Effect of single preoperative dose of duloxetine on postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy under spinal anesthesia p. 107
Sharmila Rajamohan, Manjunath Abloodu Chikkapillappa, Prapti Rath, Vinayak Seenappa Pujari, Tejesh C Anandaswamy, Geetha C Rajappa
DOI:10.4103/aer.aer_47_21  
Background: Women undergoing hysterectomy present a unique set of challenges to the anesthesiologist in terms of postoperative pain management. This study was conducted to see the effect of single-dose perioperative duloxetine 60 mg on postoperative analgesia following abdominal hysterectomy under spinal anesthesia. Materials and Methods: This prospective randomized placebo-controlled study was conducted on 64 patients scheduled to undergo elective abdominal hysterectomy under spinal anesthesia. The patients were divided into two groups of 32 in each, Group D received duloxetine 60 mg 2 h preoperatively and Group P received placebo 2 h preoperatively. Postoperatively, the patients were evaluated by an independent observer for pain on rest and during cough at 0 (arrival at postanesthesia care unit), 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 h. In addition, the postoperative analgesic requirements and adverse effects were noted. Statistical Analysis Used: Independent t-test/Mann–Whitney U-test was used to compare the pain score between two groups. Results: The demographic data were comparable between both the groups. The mean Visual Analogue Scale scores assessed postoperatively at rest and during cough which were not statistically significant between the two groups. The rescue analgesic consumption in Group D (0.97 ± 0.86) and Group P (1.25 ± 0.76) was comparable and statistically not significant. The total analgesic requirement between duloxetine (4.94 ± 0.84) and placebo (1.25 ± 0.76) group was comparable and statistically not significant. The incidence of nausea vomiting and somnolence was higher in Group D. Conclusion: We conclude that patients receiving a single dose of 60 mg duloxetine as premedication before hysterectomy under spinal anesthesia are no better than placebo on postoperative pain during the first 24 h.
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Efficacy and safety of sugammadex versus neostigmine in reversing neuromuscular blockade in morbidly obese adult patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis p. 111
Yamini Subramani, Jill Querney, Susan He, Mahesh Nagappa, Homer Yang, Ashraf Fayad
DOI:10.4103/aer.aer_79_21  
Context: Sugammadex is known to reverse neuromuscular blockade (NMB) more rapidly and reliably than neostigmine. However, data remain limited in bariatric patients. In this review, we systematically evaluated the efficacy and safety of sugammadex versus neostigmine in reversing NMB in morbidly obese (MO) patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Aims: Our primary objective was to determine the recovery time from drug administration to a train-of-four (TOF) ratio >0.9 from a moderate or deep NMB. Settings and Design: This systematic review and meta-analysis (SR and MA) was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Items for SRs and MAs guidelines. Subjects and Methods: A systematic search was conducted within multiple databases for studies that compared sugammadex and neostigmine in MO patients. Statistical Analysis Used: We reported data as mean difference (MD) or odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) using random-effects models. A two-sided P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Seven studies with 386 participants met the inclusion criteria. Sugammadex significantly reduced the time of reversal of moderate NMB-to-TOF ratio >0.9 compared to neostigmine, with a mean time of 2.5 min (standard deviation [SD] 1.25) versus 18.2 min (SD 17.6), respectively (MD: −14.52; 95% CI: −20.08, −8.96; P < 0.00001; I2 = 96%). The number of patients who had composite adverse events was significantly lower with sugammadex (21.2% of patients) compared to neostigmine (52.5% of patients) (OR: 0.15; 95% CI: 0.07–0.32; P < 0.00001; I2 = 0%). Conclusions: Sugammadex reverses NMB more rapidly with fewer adverse events than neostigmine in MO patients undergoing bariatric surgery.
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Thoracic epidural analgesia for lumbosacral spine surgery: A randomized, case-control study p. 119
Loveleen Kour, Nandita Sharma, Disha Dogra
DOI:10.4103/aer.aer_77_21  
Background: Traditional analgesics such as diclofenac and celecoxib have long been used in lumbosacral spine surgeries. Recently, preemptive single-shot caudal analgesia has been investigated by some workers with favorable results. We hypothesized that the thoracic route would not only allow preemptive but also postoperative analgesia through catheter insertion. Aim: We aimed at studying the feasibility and efficacy of thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA) in lumbosacral spine surgeries. Settings and Design: This was a prospective, randomized, controlled study that comprised 60 American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) Physical Status I and II patients posted for lumbosacral spine surgeries. Materials and Methods: Sixty ASA I and II patients were randomly divided into two groups: Group T – TEA was given using 0.2% ropivacaine 10 mL preemptive and postoperatively. Group C patients were given analgesia with intramuscular diclofenac 75 mg. Hemodynamic parameters, postoperative Visual Analog Scale scores, and neurological complications were noted. Statistical Analysis: Student's independent t-test for comparing the continuous variables and Chi-square test for the categorical variables. Kruskal–Wallis test was used for postoperative pain data. Results: Duration and quality of analgesia were superior in Group T. There were more hemodynamic alterations in Group C but no neurological complication in any patient. Conclusion: TEA proves to be an effective analgesic technique for lumbosacral spine surgeries.
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Comparison of intrathecal fentanyl and buprenorphine as an adjuvant to 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine for spinal anesthesia p. 126
Tanvi A Dhawale, KR Sivashankar
DOI:10.4103/aer.aer_59_21  
Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate and compare three groups, that is, (1) normal saline 0.5 mL with 15 mg of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine normal (BN), (2) intrathecal fentanyl 25 μg (0.5 mL) as an adjuvant to 15 mg of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine fentanyl (BF), and (3), 150 μg buprenorphine with 15 mg of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine buprenorphine (BB) with respect to the onset and duration of sensory and motor spinal block, level of anesthesia, effects on hemodynamic parameters, requirement of postoperative analgesia, and side effects in patients aged 16–60 years undergoing surgical and orthopedic procedures requiring spinal anesthesia. Methods: A prospective, observational study was performed at a single center with 90 consecutive patients enrolled as per the inclusion criteria. Patients were divided into three groups of 30 each based on drugs administered, BN, BF, and BB groups, and outcome measures were recorded. The three groups were compared with the analysis of variance test for the continuous variables, with P < 0.05 considered statistically significant. Results: The groups were similarly matched with respect to age. The earliest onset of sensory block was in the BF group (2.87 min), P < 0.05. Similarly, the mean time to achieve the highest sensory level was least in the BF group (9.63 min), P < 0.05. The onset of motor blockade was earliest in the BB group (7.65 min), P < 0.05. The mean time for two segment regression was maximum in the BB group (126.03 min), P < 0.05. The mean time for regression to L1 was the longest in the BB group (200.83 min), P < 0.05. Maximum duration of analgesia after spinal drug administration was the highest in the BB group (412.17 min), P < 0.05. Conclusion: The addition of both buprenorphine 150 μg and fentanyl 25 μg to 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine 15 mg enhances the quality and duration of sensory block for spinal anesthesia providing better postoperative analgesia, while decreasing the incidence of complications associated with each drug alone.
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Effectiveness and safety of extubation before reversal of neuromuscular blockade versus traditional technique in providing smooth extubation p. 133
Karthik C Babu, Sunil Rajan, Sai V K Sandhya, Renjima Raj, Jerry Paul, Lakshmi Kumar
DOI:10.4103/aer.aer_78_21  
Background: Traditional extubation often leads to bucking, coughing, and undesirable hemodynamic changes. Extubation just before administering reversal could reduce force of coughing, bucking and may provide better extubation conditions. Aim of Study: The aim of the study was to assess the incidence of bucking with extubation just before administering reversal of neuromuscular blockade compared to traditional technique of awake extubation. Incidence of coughing during extubation, vomiting/regurgitation, aspiration, hemodynamic changes, postoperative bleeding, and extubation conditions were also assessed. Settings and Design: This was a prospective randomized study conducted in a tertiary care institute. Subjects and Methods: Forty patients were allocated into two equal groups. In Group E, at the end of surgery, extubation was performed and reversal was administered after extubation. In Group L, reversal was given and patients were extubated in the traditional way. Quality of extubation was assessed using extubation quality score. Statistical Tests Used: Pearson Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and independent sample t-test. Results: Group E showed significantly lower incidence of bucking (15% vs. 65%) and coughing (10% vs. 45%). Incidences of desaturation and regurgitation/aspiration were comparable. In Group E, 85% of patients did not cough during extubation compared to 50% in Group L. Extubation quality was significantly better in Group E. Although extubation time was significantly shorter in Group E, recovery time was comparable in both groups. Conclusion: Extubation just before reversal of neuromuscular blockade resulted in lesser incidence of bucking and coughing during extubation with lesser postoperative bleeding compared to traditional technique of awake extubation without added risks of regurgitation, aspiration, or delayed recovery.
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Ultrasound guided adductor canal block vs intra articular analgesia for post-operative pain relief after arthroscopic knee surgeries: A comparative evaluation p. 138
Saurabh Mittal, Shreesh Mehrotra, Veena Asthana, Atul Agarwal
DOI:10.4103/aer.aer_86_21  
Context and Aims: Our aim was to assess the postoperative analgesia after ultrasound-guided “Adductor canal block” (ACB) and “Intraarticular Analgesia” (IAA) in arthroscopic knee surgeries postoperatively. Settings and Design: This experimental, randomized prospective study was conducted in the Department of Anesthesia, Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences, Dehradun. Subjects and Methods: Sixty patients, who underwent arthroscopic knee surgeries were divided into two groups, with 30 patients each. Each group was given spinal anesthesia using 3 ml of 0.5% hyperbaric Bupivacaine. After completion of surgery, Group I patients were given ultrasound-guided ACB, Group II patients were given IAA. Postoperatively, pain was assessed using the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS). Time of first analgesic requirement and total postoperative tramadol consumption in the 1st 24 h were recorded. Results: No significant difference was seen between both groups pertaining to patient's demographic data, type, and duration of surgery. The difference in the median NRS score between both the groups at different time intervals was statistically insignificant (P > 0.05). Total tramadol consumption in Group I (172.85 ± 82.59) mg was more than Group II (157.85 ± 33.83) mg. The duration of first analgesic requirement was 351.43 min, 342.86 min for Group I and II, respectively. Conclusion: To conclude, both ACB and IAA provide good postoperative pain control in arthroscopic knee surgeries with no significant difference in pain scores and postoperative analgesic requirement.
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CASE SERIES Top

A simple modification of sphenopalatine ganglion block for treatment of postdural puncture headache: A case series p. 143
Tanvi Bhargava, Abhishek Kumar, Amit Rastogi, Divya Srivastava, Tapas Kumar Singh
DOI:10.4103/aer.aer_67_21  
To evaluate the efficacy of modified sphenopalatine ganglion block (MSPGB) to reduce the severity of post-dural puncture headache (PDPH). Five adult patients of both genders with age >18 years having PDPH intractable to conservative management were given modified sphenopalatine block in the postoperative period, and numeric rating scale (NRS) was recorded at regular intervals till the hospital discharge. MSPGB is a simple, noninvasive technique that provides instantaneous symptomatic relief in PDPH.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Peripartum management of gitelman syndrome for vaginal delivery: A case report and review of literature p. 146
Georgia Micha, Konstantina Kalopita, Spyridoula Theodorou, Konstantinos Stroumpoulis
DOI:10.4103/aer.aer_82_21  
We describe the anesthetic management of a spontaneous vaginal delivery at 38 weeks' gestation in a 36-year-old patient with Gitelman syndrome (GS). GS is a rare autosomal recessive renal tubulopathy characterized by hypomagnesemia, hypocalciuria, and secondary aldosteronism, which results in hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis. To minimize any increase in catecholamine levels and consequent risk of ventricular arrhythmias, a labor epidural analgesia was administered using ropivacaine and fentanyl, along with intravenous magnesium and potassium supplementation. Ropivacaine was substituted for routine bupivacaine to decrease the risk of drug-induced cardiotoxicity. In the event of a cesarean section, the anesthetic plan was to continue with top-up epidural anesthesia and in case of failure, to convert to general anesthesia using propofol and rocuronium for induction. Delivery outcome was successful and uneventful.
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Anesthesia for a child with congenital long QT syndrome, a case report and literature review p. 149
Ferda Yaman, Nurdan Baydogan, Ayten Bilir, Armagan Incesulu
DOI:10.4103/aer.aer_48_21  
Long QT syndrome is an inherited disorder of the heart's electrical activity that may also be associated with malignant arrhythmia and cause sudden death. In addition to this inherited condition, several commonly used anesthetic drugs can prolong the QT interval. We present here a 17-month-old male patient who underwent general anesthesia for a cochlear implant. No cardiac arrhythmia was observed in the patient, whose muscle relaxant effect was reversed using sugammadex. The application of intravenous anesthetics was preferred to maintain anesthesia for this patient and was safely applied.
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Sequential combined spinal-epidural anesthesia in a multiple comorbidity patient: An indispensable tool in anesthesiologists' armamentarium p. 152
Vishwadeep Singh, Ashita Mowar, Akhilesh Pahade, Geeta Karki
DOI:10.4103/aer.aer_68_21  
Primary total knee joint arthroplasty (TKA) is a frequently performed procedure as part of osteoarthritis treatment. Optimal perioperative analgesia will augment functional recovery, improve knee mobility, and reduce postoperative morbidity. Octa- and nonagenarians undergoing TKA are often considered particularly difficult to manage and involve high levels of competence due to associated comorbidities these patients present with. We report a case of a geriatric patient with coronary artery disease and low ejection fraction with pulmonary fibrosis who underwent successful total knee arthroplasty under sequential combined spinal-epidural anesthesia.
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LETTERS TO THE EDITOR Top

Are preprints eligible for submission in medical journals following double-blind peer review? Highly accessed article p. 155
Vinodhadevi Vijayakumar, Arimanickam Ganesamoorthi, Omprakash Srinivasan
DOI:10.4103/aer.aer_60_21  
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