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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 15  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 62-66

Role of dexamethasone on oxygen requirement, mortality, and survival incidence among COVID-19 patients: Quasi-experimental study

Department of Anaesthesia, Sri Guru Ram Dass Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Amritsar, Punjab, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Lakshmi Mahajan
Associate Professor, Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care, SGRD Medical College and Hospital, Amritsar, Punjab
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/aer.aer_70_21

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Background: Patients diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are often prone to developing systemic inflammation which eventually causes damage to the lungs and other important organs. Randomized open-label control trials carried out in the different parts of the world have highlighted the importance of corticosteroids for treating such patients. Materials and Methods: The current quasi-experimental study was based on COVID-19-infected patients with oxygen saturation <92% and evidence of pneumonia confirmed through radiological examination. Study participants in Group A received standard care, while those in Group B received standard care along with 6 mg intravenous dexamethasone for 10 days (or until discharge, if earlier). The clinical status of the study participants was assessed on day 7 and day 14 on a 6-point ordinal scale. Results: It was observed from the study that there was reduction in the intensive care unit (ICU) stay and mortality among the study participants requiring high-flow oxygen or noninvasive ventilation in Group B as compared to Group A. After 7 days of treatment, 50% of the study participants in Group B got discharged as compared to 15% of the study participants in Group A. The number of study participants requiring mechanical ventilation remained 1 in Group B as compared to 5 in Group A. After the completion of treatment schedule, 91% study participants were discharged. There was 1 case of mortality reported in Group B as compared to 6 cases of mortality in Group A. Conclusions: The current study highlighted that fewer number of COVID-19-positive study participants in Group B required high-flow oxygen supplementation and noninvasive positive pressure ventilation as compared to those included in Group A. The corticosteroid treatment also reduced the number of ICU transfer and mortality.

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